Wing Over


The model aircraft approaches in straight and level flight on a line parallel with the Judges’ line. After passing the judges’ position a smooth climbing turn is commenced away from the judges. At the apex of the turn the bank should be at least 60º. The nose of the model aircraft then lowers and the bank comes off at the same rate as it went on. The turn is continued through 180º to recover straight and level flight at the same height and on a heading opposite to that of the entry. A low powered aircraft would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up speed before commencing the maneuver. This option may only be nominated for non-aerobatic aircraft.


  1. Start and finish positions not as indicated.
  2. Insufficient climb achieved.
  3. Insufficient bank achieved.
  4. Climb and descent angles not equal throughout maneuver.
  5. Model aircraft does not fly a smooth and symmetrical arc
  6. Entry and exit paths not parallel with judges’ line.
  7. Overall size of maneuver not realistic for prototype.
  8. Model aircraft flight path not smooth and steady.
  9. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

Touch and Go


The model aircraft commences by descending from base leg, which may be either curved or straight as required by the pilot. The turn is continued through 90 degrees onto final approach. The model aircraft then lands and takes off again into wind without coming to a halt. The main wheels must roll on the ground for a minimum of five meters. Flaps will be used if applicable.


  1. Maneuver does not commence on base leg.
  2. Turn onto final approach too tight or not 90°.
  3. Descent from base leg not smooth and continuous.
  4. Model aircraft does not achieve correct landing approach prior to touchdown.
  5. Model aircraft does not achieve a minimum ground roll of 5 meters
      (Note: if prototype has two main wheels then both wheels must roll on ground for minimum 5 meters).
  6. Model aircraft bounces on landing.
  7. Inappropriate use of flaps.
  8. Climb out not smooth or realistic.
  9. Approach and climb out tracks not the same.
  10. Does not make best use of landing space available for wind direction.

Three Turn Spin


From straight and level flight, the model aircraft decelerates into a stall and commences the spin through three turns and recovers to level flight on the same track as the initial flight direction. During descent the model aircraft may drift with the wind


  1. Engine not throttled back at point of stall.
  2. Entry into spin not clean and positive.
  3. Not a true spin but merely a spiral dive (which should score zero).
    Note: In a true spin descent path will be close to C of G of model aircraft. A spiral dive is a tight vertical barrel roll.
  4. Not three complete turns.
  5. Start of spin not centered on judges’ position.
  6. Model aircraft does not resume straight and level flight on same track as entry.
  7. Entry and exit paths not parallel with judges’ line.
  8. Entry and exit not in level flight
  9. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.



  1. Straight taxi out and back typically includes a braked stop before turning onto runway.
  2. Tail-dragger with brakes stops prior to takeoff after using rudder to move nose (l) & (r) during taxi to permit ease of forward view.
  3. Taxi out with 120′ turn back into the wind and hold prior to turning onto runway and run-up for takeoff. When landing, after turn onto taxiway aircraft makes a straight taxi back in opposite direction of taxi-out.
  4. Tail dragger without brakes may or may not stop prior to takeoff after using rudder to move nose (l) & (r) permitting pilot forward view during taxi. Typically, pilot slows, or may slow to a stop, to look for traffic prior to moving onto runway.


  1. Failure to stop if prototype aircraft has brakes.
  2. Failure to move tail dragger (l) & (r) during taxi-out & taxi-back.
  3. Failing to taxi-back if taxi-out maneuver was performed.
  4. Taxi speed greater than prototypical to type aircraft.
  5. Entering taxi at too high a speed or too quickly after landing.



The model aircraft should stand still on the ground with the motor running without being held by the pilot or mechanic and then take-off into wind, or as required by the competitor to make best use of the take-off distance available (jet subjects). If the model aircraft is touched after the competitor calls “Now” the take-off will score zero. The take-off should be straight and the model aircraft should smoothly accelerate to a realistic speed, and then lift gently from the ground and climb at an angle consistent with that of the prototype. If the prototype used flaps for take-off, then the model aircraft should also, but this may be subject to the competitor’s judgment taking into account the wind strength. Any flap-less take-off due to wind must be nominated to the judges before take-off. Flaps should be raised during the climb -out after take-off. If applicable, the landing gear should be retracted during the climb-out.


  1. Model aircraft touched after calling “Now” (zero marks).
  2. Swings on Take-off (a slight swing with other than a tricycle undercarriage is acceptable as the aircraft tail is raised).
  3. Take-off run too long or too short.
  4. Unrealistic speed / too rapid acceleration.
  5. Inappropriate attitude at lift-off for undercarriage configuration.
  6. Not a smooth lift-off.
  7. Climb rate wrong (too steep or too shallow).
  8. Nose attitude wrong during climb (nose too high or too low).
  9. Flaps not used if applicable.
  10. Wheels not raised if applicable.
  11. Significant wing drop.
  12. Climb -out track not same as take-off run.
  13. Unrealistic rate of turn onto crosswind leg.
  14. Crosswind track not 90° to climb out track.